‘Adjuvant’ is derived from the Latin, word ‘adjuvare’ which translated to English means ‘to help’. Adjuvants are hence designed to helping to improve poorly immunogenic vaccines. Adjuvants were originally described as substances which when used in combination with a specific antigen that produce a more robust immune response than the antigen alone, thus encompassing a wide range of materials. Vaccines efficacy has been reduced significantly due to the demand for the vaccines that are less reactive and safer for intake and at the same time also capable of inducing cell-mediated immunity hence there have been significant developments to produce such products for plants, animals as well as in human vaccines.
Adjuvants can be categorized into two broad groups; the particulate vaccine-delivery systems and the immune stimulatory adjuvants on the basis of their action mechanism which is not yet determined clearly due to complex course of action but still based on generalized results research has continued and results also achieved. .
What are Adjuvants?
Adjuvants can be defined as the substances which help to enhance the immunogenicity of an antigen for e.g. aluminum hydroxide or phosphate are used for this purpose. Many molecules including mineral compounds (e.g. Alum), water-in-oil or oil-in-water emulsions, as well as natural and synthetic toxins derived from bacteria (e.g. cholera toxin, CT and lymphotoxin, LT) have been considered for use as an adjuvant. They activate the innate immune system such that it responds more rapidly to infection and for the adaptive immune response to becomes more specific. Their working mechanisms still remain undiscovered to complete level due to the complexity of the immune response, but generalizations can be drawn in order to allow the design of more rational adjuvants aimed at particular arms of the immune system. They act on both plants as well as animals hence have wide range of applications too.
What are the major applications for Adjuvants?
Adjuvants are used as additive in all types of medicine i.e. for plants, animals and humans too. In human medicine they are added to the solution for treatment of diseases such as viral, influenza, etc. Inflammation, tissue destruction, and the potential for resulting pain and distress in the host animal arises due to immunostimulatory properties of adjuvants. Adjuvants that are used for experimental purposes are used to produce antibodies for use in other experimental or diagnostic procedures. Emulsions are the most commonly used depot agents in the experimental production of polyclonal antibodies. Emulsions may be water-in-oil emulsions, oil-in-water emulsions, or more complex types such as water-oil-water emulsions. In addition to carrying and protecting the antigen from proteolytic destruction, an adjuvant should preserve the conformational integrity of an antigen and present the antigen to the appropriate effector cells, usually professional antigen-presenting cells and macrophages. Immunomodulators and immunostimulators are used in many adjuvants to recruit, activate, and enhance differentiation of the cells of the immune system.
Market Research and Market Trends of Adjuvants Ecosystem
- Europe and North America are the dominant markets for adjuvants because of the high prevalence of cancer in the two continents. The developed healthcare facilities, favorable reimbursements policies, and the greater means of people to spend on better quality healthcare also have contributed to adoption of adjuvants in the medicine. Knowledge of the disease and availability of various treatments is also driving the growth of the two regional markets. 90% of countries in European continent have been reported offering these cancer treatment services that include cancer surgery, subsidized chemotherapy and cancer centers or departments.
- Agrochemicals are expected to be on high demand in future with the growing significance for technological assistance platforms such as precision farming. Global agricultural adjuvants market expansion is projected to be further pushed by the rising use of advance agrochemicals for use as herbicides, pesticides, insecticides, etc. Precision farming facilitates the use of agricultural adjuvants for suitable agrochemical application this has already resulted in tremendous benefits for farmers.
- Vaccines are the most efficient tool for prevention of diseases that are caused by infectious pathogens. Significant progress has been made in vaccine development in the recent past, resulting in the eradication or control of several diseases. The emergence of new pathogens and the inadequate protection provided by some existing vaccines however require formulation of new vaccination strategies. Immunization approaches such as subunit vaccines and mucosal administration, essentially make the use of novel adjuvants. However, only a limited number of adjuvants are available on the market at present. There are many human vaccines which are currently in the research and development phase hence a need there is need for new solutions.
Who are the Major Players in Adjuvants market?
The players profiled in the report include BASF SE, Syngenta AG, Bayer CropScience AG, Novozymes A/S, Koppert Biological Systems B.V., Monsanto Company Inc., Marrone Bio Innovations, Inc., Biobest N.V., Certis USA LLC, Andermatt Biocontrol AG
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