also known as far-infrared or sub-millimeter waves or T-rays are radiations which lie between microwaves and infrared light waves and the region is known as the terahertz gap. In this gap the technology for its generation is recently emerging. Its frequency range is 100 GHz - 10 THz and wavelengths 3 mm - 30 µm. These rays are Non-ionizing and they also penetrate through cloths, walls, paper, wood, plastic and a few more. They are absorbed by water and many other organic substances and are high in chemical sensitivity.
can be divided into Its sources, sensors, systems, devices and applications. The sources of Terahertz are either natural or artificial. The natural source is the black body radiation and artificial sources are gyrotron, backward wave oscillator (BWO), far infrared laser (fir laser), Quantum cascade laser, free electron laser (Fel), Synchrotron light sources, Photo-mixing sources and others like photoconductive, surface field and optical rectification emitters. Its detectors are Schottky barrier diode, Golay cell, micro-bolometer, pyroelectric detector, broadband antennas, High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) and Superconductive Hot-Spot Air-Bridge Bolometer. Terahertz systems are mainly of two types. Systems based on Spectroscopy and systems based on imaging. Some others are Terahertz radar, sensing, Antennas and emerging systems. There are many devices which can be made from the terahertz technology like portable Terahertz (THz) imaging systems, cameras, Terahertz sensors/detectors, generators, Terahertz artificial sources, Spectroscopes, Communications devices, computing devices and others. Terahertz technology has a wide range of applications, out of which a few are in Defense & homeland Security, Food and Beverages, Biomedical (oncology, dentistry, dermatology, biosensors, medical imaging), Banking and Financial security, Telecommunications, Industrial NDT (Non-destructive Testing) and others.
Terahertz market has been divided into four regions based on geography which are the Americas, Europe, Asia-pacific and the rest of the world (ROW). Americas region is a key player in this market due to the significant market for defence and homeland security in this region. Asia Pacific is the fastest growing region in this market and is set to play a major role in this market.
The companies which have established themselves as the major players of this market are:
- Qualcomm Technologies, Inc.
- Advanced Photonix, Inc.
- Toptica Photonics AG
- Menlo Systems GmbH
- QMC Instruments Ltd.